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Republic of Turkmenistan

Flag of Turkmenistan
Location of Turkmenistan
and largest city
Official languagesTurkmen
Russian, Uzbek
Ethnic groups
GovernmentDominant-party presidential state
• President
Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow
Akja Nuberdiyeva
Independence from the Soviet Union
• Declared
27 October 1991
• Recognized
25 December 1991
• Total
491,210 km2 (189,660 sq mi)[1] (52nd)
• Water (%)
• 2012 estimate
5,125,693[2] (112th)
• Density
10.5/km2 (27.2/sq mi) (208th)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$43.359 billion[3]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$25.742 billion[3]
• Per capita
HDI (2013)0.698[4]
medium · 102nd
CurrencyTurkmen new manat (TMT)
Time zoneUTC+5 (TMT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+5 (not observed)
Driving sideright
Calling code+993
ISO 3166 codeTM

Turkmenistan officially the Republic of Turkmenistan is a country in South-Central Asia. It has borders with Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. It has no ocean but it is on the Caspian Sea to the west. The capital of Turkmenistan is Ashghabat.[5] The majority of the country is Muslim at 93%.

Turkmenistan is a non-aligned and fully neutral country.


Turkmenistan was a part of the Soviet Union since its creation, in 1922. At first, Turkmenistan was an autonomous republic within Russian SFSR. In 1925 it was promoted to a Soviet republic. Turkmenistan is an independent country since 1991, after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Saparmurat Niyazov became Turkmenistan’s first president in 1991.


Turkmenistan is divided into five provinces and one capital city district. The provinces are divided into districts which may be either counties or cities.

Division ISO 3166-2 Capital city Area[6] Pop (2005)[6] Key
Ashgabat City Ashgabat 470 km2 (180 sq mi) 871,500
Ahal Province TM-A Anau 97,160 km2 (37,510 sq mi) 939,700 1
Balkan Province TM-B Balkanabat  139,270 km2 (53,770 sq mi) 553,500 2
Daşoguz Province TM-D Daşoguz 73,430 km2 (28,350 sq mi) 1,370,400 3
Lebap Province TM-L Türkmenabat 93,730 km2 (36,190 sq mi) 1,334,500 4
Mary Province TM-M Mary 87,150 km2 (33,650 sq mi) 1,480,400 5


Turkmenistan is one of the driest desert areas in the world. Some places have an average annual precipitation of only 12 mm (0.47 in). The highest temperature recorded in Ashgabat is 48.0 °C (118.4 °F). Kerki, an extreme inland city located on the banks of the Amu Darya river, recorded 51.7 °C (125.1 °F) in July 1983, but this value is unofficial. 50.1C is the highest temperature recorded at Repetek Reserve, recognized as the highest temperature ever recorded in the whole former Soviet Union.


Turkmenistan is the world's 52nd-largest country. It is slightly smaller than Spain and somewhat larger than the US state of California. Over 80% of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert.

The Turkmen shore along the Caspian Sea is 1,768 kilometres (1,099 mi) long. The Caspian Sea is entirely landlocked, with no access to the ocean.

The major cities include Aşgabat, Türkmenbaşy (formerly Krasnovodsk) and Daşoguz.

Turkmenistan has a humid climate. Annual rainfall is low, particularly in summer. Winters are dry and mild. The wettest region in Turkmenistan is Köýtendağ Range. Köýtendağ is situated in southeastern Turkmenistan on the borders with Uzbekistan.


  1. Государственный комитет Туркменистана по статистике : Информация о Туркменистане : О Туркменистане : Туркменистан — одна из пяти стран Центральной Азии, вторая среди них по площади (491,21 тысяч км2), расположен в юго-западной части региона в зоне пустынь, севернее хребта Копетдаг Туркмено-Хорасанской горной системы, между Каспийским морем на западе и рекой Амударья на востоке.
  2. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. Retrieved 12 March 2009. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Turkmenistan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  4. "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011. 
  5. "Turkmenistan". Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook. Retrieved 2009-09-04. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Statistical Yearbook of Turkmenistan 2000-2004, National Institute of State Statistics and Information of Turkmenistan, Ashgabat, 2005.