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British overseas territories
Before 1981 the territories were known as colonies or Crown colonies. The British Overseas Territories are also referred to as overseas territories of the United Kingdom, UK overseas territories, or when the context is clear, simply the Overseas Territories.
The territories of Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man, though also under the sovereignty of the British Crown, have a slightly different constitutional relationship with the United Kingdom, and are consequently classed as Crown dependencies rather than Overseas Territories. Territories and dependencies are distinct from the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of former British colonies.
In a historical context, colonies should be distinguished from protectorates and protected states, which though under British control, were nominally independent states, whereas colonies were part of the British state. They should also not be confused with Dominions, which, known collectively as the Commonwealth, were independent states, held to be equal in sovereign status to the United Kingdom within the Empire and Commonwealth after the Statute of Westminster in 1931. Crown colonies, such as Hong Kong, were differentiated from other colonies in being administered directly by the Crown, without the degree of local autonomy found in self-governed colonies such as Bermuda.
Current Overseas Territories
|Anguilla||Caribbean||Strength and Endurance|| 102 km²
(39.4 sq mi)
|Bermuda||North Atlantic Ocean||Quo fata ferunt (Latin: "Whither the Fates carry [us]")|| 53.3 km²
(20.6 sq mi)
|British Antarctic Territory||Antarctica||Research and discovery|| 1,709,400 km²
(666,000 sq mi)
|200 staff||Rothera (main base)|
|British Indian Ocean Territory||Indian Ocean||In tutela nostra Limuria (Latin: "Limuria is in our charge")|| 60 km²
(23 sq mi)
|3,200 military and staff||Diego Garcia (base)|
|British Virgin Islands||Caribbean||Vigilate (Latin: "Be watchful")|| 153 km²
(59 sq mi)
|Cayman Islands||Caribbean||He hath founded it upon the seas|| 260 km²
(100.4 sq mi)
|Falkland Islands||South Atlantic Ocean||Desire the right|| 12,173 km²
(4,702 sq mi)
|Gibraltar||Southern Europe||Nulli expugnabilis hosti (Latin: "Conquerable by no enemy")|| 6.5 km²
(2.5 sq mi)
|Montserrat||Caribbean||Each Endeavouring, All Achieving|| 102 km²
(39 sq mi)
|9,000||Plymouth (abandoned due to volcano—de facto capital is Brades)|
|Pitcairn Islands||Pacific Ocean||Unknown|| 43 km²
(17 sq mi)
|Saint Helena (including Ascension, Tristan da Cunha)||South Atlantic Ocean||Loyal and unshakeable|| 410 km²
(158 sq mi)
|South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands||South Atlantic Ocean||Leo terram propriam protegat (Latin: "Let the lion protect his own land")|| 3,903 km²
(1508 sq mi)
|11-26 staff||King Edward Point/Grytviken|
|Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia||Mediterranean (Cyprus)||Dieu et mon droit (French: "God and my right")|| 254 km²
(98 sq mi)
|15,000 (almost half British military and staff)||Episkopi Cantonment|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||North Atlantic Ocean||One people, one nation, one destiny|| 430 km²
(166 sq mi)
Head of State
The head of state in the Overseas Territories is the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The Queen's role in the territories is in her role as Queen of the United Kingdom, and not in right of each territory. The Queen appoints a representative in each territory to exercise her executive power.
All the Overseas Territories have their own system of government, and localised laws. The structure of the government appears to be closely correlated to the size and political development of the territory.
|No native population, therefore there is no elected government. The Commissioner, supported by an Administrator run the affairs of the territory.|
|There is no elected government, and currently has no native settled population. However, the Chagos Islanders - who were forcibly evicted from the territory in 1971 and might reasonably considered to be that territory's people - are currently defending an appeal against an English High Court judgment which quashed an Order preventing them from returning.|
|There is no elected government, however the British military authorities try to ensure convergence of laws with those of the Republic of Cyprus where possible.|
|There is an elected Mayor and Island Council, who have the power to propose and administer local legislation. However, their decisions are subject to approval by the Governor, who retains near-unlimited powers of plenary legislation on behalf of the United Kingdom Government.|
|The Government consists of an elected Legislative Council. The Governor is the head of government and leads the Executive Council, consisting of appointed members made up from the Legislative Council and two ex-offico members.|
|These larger territories have a larger Legislative Council, with political parties. The Executive Council is usually called a cabinet and is led by a Chief Minister (except in the Cayman Islands, which have a Leader of Government Business), who is the leader of the majority party in parliament. The Governor exercises less power over local affairs and deals mostly with foreign affairs and economic issues, while the elected government controls most "domestic" concerns.|
|Under the 2006 constitution which was approved in Gibraltar by a referendum, Gibraltar now has a Parliament. The Government, headed by the Chief Minister is elected. Defence, external affairs and internal security vest in the Governor as a matter of distribution of powers. The UK, administers absolutely nothing in Gibraltar.|
|Bermuda, settled in 1609, is the oldest and most populous of the Overseas Territories, and most executive powers have been devolved to the head of government, known as the Premier. Its system of government is very similar to that of a sovereign Commonwealth Realm. The UK government retains only minor powers, exercised through the Governor, but most of those are handed to local ministers for day-to-day purposes. Bermuda's Parliament held its first session in 1620, and Bermuda has been largely self-governed and self-sufficient since then.|
Each Overseas Territory has its own legal system independent of the United Kingdom. The legal system is generally based on English common law, with some distinctions for local circumstances. Each territory has its own Attorney General, and court system. For the smaller territories, the UK may appoint a UK-based lawyer or judge to work on legal cases. This is particularly important for cases involving serious crimes and where it is impossible to find a jury who will not know the defendant in a small population island.
Gallery of images
City Hall, Hamilton, Bermuda
- The name "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, and replaced the name British dependent territory which was introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981.
- CIA - The World Factbook Archived 1 February 2010 at WebCite
- http://www.fco.gov.uk/servlet/Front?pagename=OpenMarket/Xcelerate/ShowPage&c=Page&cid=1007029394365&a=KCountryProfile&aid=1018965238550[dead link]
- speech at the United Nations, 2007[dead link]
- Harry Ritchie: The Last Pink Bits
- Simon Winchester: Outposts: Travel to the Remains of the British Empire (published in 1985 in the UK as Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire also in the US as The Sun Never Sets: Travels to the Remaining Outposts of the British Empire.)
- Foreign and Commonwealth Office- "UK Overseas Territories"
- The Commonwealth - UK government site
- Decolonisation - History links for the end of the European formal Empires, casahistoria.net
- UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum
- British Overseas Territories Act 2002- Text of the Act
- United Kingdom Overseas Territories Association
- Britlink - The British Overseas Territories