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Republic of Cyprus

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Republic of Cyprus

Flag of Cyprus
Location of  Republic of Cyprus  (green)in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Republic of Cyprus  (green)

in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

and largest city
Nicosia (Λευκωσία, Lefkoşa)
Official languages Greek, Turkish[1]
Ethnic groups
77% Greek
18% Turkish
5% others[2]
Demonym(s) Cypriot, Greek Cypriot, Turkish Cypriot
Government Presidential republic
• President
Nicos Anastasiades
19 February 1959
• Proclaimed
16 August 1960
• Total
9,251 km2 (3,572 sq mi) (167th)
• Water (%)
• 2010 estimate
803,147[3] (Does not include North)
1,088,503 (whole island)
• Density
117/km2 (303.0/sq mi) (115th)
Kyrenia castle, northern Cyprus

Cyprus is an island in the Mediterranean Sea. At present it is divided de facto into two countries.

The Republic of Cyprus is a member state of the European Union. Although it is close to Asia, Cyprus is also a part of Europe because of the culture and history of the people. The capital of the Republic is Nicosia. Most of the population speaks Greek, and a minority is Turkish-speaking.

In July 1974 Turkey invaded Cyprus and since then the northern part of the island is under Turkish occupation (illegally, according to the Greek government). The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is not recognised by any international organisation. When entering by aeroplane, a short stop is made to an airport in mainland Turkey.

The present situation came about because Cyprus, historically Greek, was conquered and became part of the Ottoman Empire from 1570–1914, though de facto the British administered it from 1878 until 1960. Likewise, Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire for several centuries. Negotiations for a unified island have been held several times without success.

In 2004 Cyprus joined the European Union and on 1 January 2008 Cyprus adopted the Euro, the single European currency. Northern Cyprus accepts Turkish lira, and sometimes the Euro or United States dollar.


Cyprus is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia.

There are two mountain ranges, the Troodos Mountains and the smaller Kyrenia Range. Pedieos River is the longest on the island. The highest point on Cyprus is Mount Olympus at 1,952 m (6,404 ft).

The Republic of Cyprus is only on the southern two-thirds of the island (59.74%). The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is the northern third (34.85%).


The Republic of Cyprus is divided into six districts:[5] Nicosia, Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol and Paphos. These are not the same as those of Northern Cyprus.


This is a list of cities and towns in Cyprus. This list shows cities and towns that had over 10,000 people in the 2006 census.

# City 2006 Census District
1 Nicosia 398,293 Nicosia
2 Limassol 235,056 Limassol
3 Larnaca 140,000 Larnaca
4 Paphos 66,364 Paphos
5 Kyrenia 62,504 Kyrenia
6 Famagusta 42,526 Famagusta
7 Protaras 20,230 Famagusta
8 Aradhippou 20,000 Larnaca
9 Morphou 14,833 Nicosia
10 Paralimni 11,836 Famagusta

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