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Lists of tropical cyclone names
Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph), names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.
Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes and naming lists have subsequently been introduced and developed for the Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins, as well as the Australian region, Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean.
- 1 North Atlantic
- 2 Eastern Pacific Ocean
- 3 Western Pacific Ocean (180° to 100°E)
- 4 North Indian Ocean (45°E - 100°E)
- 5 South-West Indian Ocean (90°E - 30°E)
- 6 Australian Region (90°E - 160°E)
- 7 Southern Pacific Ocean (160°E - 120°W)
- 8 Other areas
- 9 Related pages
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Other websites
Within the North Atlantic Ocean, tropical or subtropical cyclones are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 65 km/h, (40 mph). Six lists of names are used in alphabetical order, and maintained by the World Meteorological Organization with them rotating on a yearly basis. Significant tropical cyclones have their names removed from the lists with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee meeting. If all of the names on a list are used, storms are named after the letters of the Greek alphabet (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, etc.). Greek names, unlike the names in the regular lists, cannot be removed. If a storm ever reached the magnitude that might otherwise have led to retirement, the storm would be listed with the retired names with a footnote indicating the Greek letter would still be available for future storms.
The names used recently in (2020) will be reused again in 2026. (if none of them are retired)
Eastern Pacific Ocean
Within the Eastern Pacific Ocean two offices of the United States National Weather Service assign names to tropical cyclones when they are judged to have intensified into a tropical storm with winds of at least 65 km/h, (40 mph). Tropical cyclones that become tropical storms between the coast of Americas and 140°W are named by the National Hurricane Center (NHC), whilst tropical cyclones intensifying into tropical storms between 140°W and 180° are named by the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC). Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee meeting.
North Pacific east of 140°W
When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between the coastline of the Americas and 140°E then it will be named by the NHC. Six lists of names are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization with them rotating on a yearly basis. Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee meeting. If all of the names on a list are used, storms are then named after the letters of the Greek alphabet (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, etc.). Greek names, unlike the names in the regular lists, cannot be retired. If a storm ever reached the magnitude that might otherwise have led to retirement, the storm would be listed with the retired names with a footnote indicating the Greek letter would still be available for future storms.
Central North Pacific (140°W to 180°)
When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical storm to the north of the Equator between 140°W and 180° it is named by the CPHC. Four lists of names are maintained by the World Meteorological Organization, rotating without regard to year, with the first name for a new year being the next name in sequence that was not used the previous year. Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists, with a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee meeting. The last name to be used from this list was Omeka, whilst the next will be Pewa.
Western Pacific Ocean (180° to 100°E)
Within the Northwestern Pacific Ocean there are two separate agencies who assign names to tropical cyclones which often results in a cyclone having two names. The Japan national weather service names tropical cyclones should they be judged to have 10-minute sustained wind speeds of 65 km/h, (40 mph), to the north of the equator between the 180° and 100°E. The Philippine national weather service also assigns names to tropical cyclones which move into or form as a tropical depression in their area of responsibility located between 135°E and 115°E and between 5°E-25°E even if the cyclone has had a name assigned to it by the Japanese national weather service.
Tropical cyclones are named from the following lists by the Japanese national weather service, once they become a tropical storm. Names are contributed by members of the ESCAP/WMO Typhoon Committee. Each of the 14 nations or territories submitted 10 names, which are used in alphabetical order, by the English name of the country.
|Contributing nation||Cambodia||China|| North Korea
|Hong Kong||Japan||Laos||Macau||Malaysia||Micronesia||Philippines||South Korea (ROK)||Thailand||USA||Vietnam|
The Philippine national weather service uses its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones in their area of responsibility. PAGASA assigns names to tropical depressions that form within their area of responsibility, and any tropical cyclone that moves into their area of responsibility. Should the list of names for a given year prove to be insufficient, names are taken from a reserve list of names, with the first ten published every year.
North Indian Ocean (45°E - 100°E)
Within this basin when a deep depression is judged to have become a Cyclonic Storm it will be named by the Indian national weather service. The list of names were selected between 2000 and 2004 by the countries of the WMO/ESCAP Panel on tropical cyclones, before the actual naming of tropical cyclones began in September 2004.
|List 1||List 2||List 3||List 4||List 5||List 6||List 7||List 8|
South-West Indian Ocean (90°E - 30°E)
Within the South-west Indian Ocean, tropical and subtropical depressions that are judged to have 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h, (40 mph) or more for at least 6 hours by the national weather service of Reunion Island are usually assigned a name. However it is the Mauritius and Madagascan national weather services who name the systems. The National weather service of Mauritius name the storm should it intensify into a moderate tropical storm between 55°E and 90°E; if the storm should intensify into a moderate tropical storm between 30°E and 55°E then the national weather service of Madagascar assigns the appropriate name to the storm. Tropical cyclones moving into this region from the Australian Region are renamed by the Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Center in Mauritius; however tropical cyclones moving into the Australian region do not get renamed. New name lists are used every year, whilst a name is normally only used once so thus no names are retired.
Australian Region (90°E - 160°E)
Within the Australian Region there are five different offices that assign names to tropical cyclones. However, as three of the offices are run by the Australian national weather service, only 3 lists of names are operated. A tropical depression is judged to have intensified into a tropical cyclone if winds reach 65 km/h, (40 mph) and it is clear that gales are occurring more than halfway around the center. Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting.
When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator and 10°S and between 90°E and 125°E then it will be named by the Indonesian national weather service. Should a tropical low intensify into a tropical cyclone between the Equator and 10°S and between 141°E and 160°E are assigned names by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Center in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Tropical Depressions intensifying into tropical cyclones in all other areas between 90°E and 160°E as well as the Equator and 40°S are named by the Australian national weather service. Should a tropical cyclone pass from one warning center to another it will retain its original name, except when moving into the South-West Indian Ocean where the Mauritius Meteorological Service will rename the system.
When a tropical depression intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the Equator and 10°S and between 90°E - 125°E, it will be named by the Indonesian Weather Service. Names are currently assigned in sequence from list A, while list B is a list of names that will replace names on list A that are retired.
When a tropical low intensifies into a tropical cyclone between 10°S and 40°S and between 90°E - 160°E, then it will be named by one of three Australian national weather service offices in Perth, Darwin, or Brisbane. Starting with Anika, the names are assigned in alphabetical order with the lists used in rotating order without regard to year.
Papua New Guinea
When a tropical low intensifies into a tropical cyclone between the equator and 10°S and between 141°E - 160°E then it will be named by the Papua New Guinea's national weather service. Names from List A are assigned in a random order while list B details replacement names for list A which will be added in the bottom of list A to maintain the alphabetical order.
Southern Pacific Ocean (160°E - 120°W)
Within the Southern Pacific a tropical depression is judged to have reach tropical cyclone intensity should it reach winds of 65 km/h (40 mph), and it is evident that gales are occurring at least halfway around the center. Tropical depressions that should intensify into a tropical cyclone between the Equator and 25°S and between 160°E - 120°W are named by the Fiji national weather service. Should a Tropical Depression intensify to the south of 25°S between 160°E and 120°W, it will be named in conjunction with the Fijian national weather service by the New Zealand's national weather service. Significant tropical cyclones have their names retired from the lists and a replacement name selected at the next World Meteorological Organization Regional Association V Tropical Cyclone Committee meeting, whilst tropical cyclones that move into the Australian region will retain its original name.
Tropical cyclone formation is rare within the Mediterranean sea, South Atlantic and to the east of 120W in the Southern Pacific, as a result there are no official naming lists for these areas although in 2004 & 2010 when tropical cyclones formed within the South Atlantic they were named as Catarina and Anita.
- List of previous tropical cyclone names
- European windstorm names
- List of Atlantic hurricane seasons
- List of Pacific hurricane seasons
- List of Pacific typhoon seasons
- List of North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons
- List of Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons
- List of Australian region cyclone seasons
- List of South-West Indian Ocean cyclone seasons
- List of South Pacific cyclone seasons
- Staff Writer (2010-06-01). "RA IV Hurricane Operational Plan for North America, Central America and the Caribbean Hurricane Operational Plan" (PDF). Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee. World Meteorological Organization. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/TCP30_2010_OpsPlan_En.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-25.
- "Frequently asked questions: B: Tropical Cyclone Names". The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/tcfaq/B2.html.
- Staff Writer (2006-04-04). "RA IV Hurricane Committee Twenty-eighth Session report". Regional Association IV Hurricane Committee. World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 2010-09-24. https://www.webcitation.org/5szgi2O7l?url=http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/FINAL-REPORT-HC-28.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
- RA IV Hurricane Committee (May 16, 2018) Regional Association IV (North America, Central America and the Caribbean) Hurricane Operational Plan 2018 . World Meteorological Organization. Report. Retrieved on October 31, 2018.
- Staff Writer (2009-01-21). "Tropical Cyclone names". Japan Meteorological Agency. http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/jma-eng/jma-center/rsmc-hp-pub-eg/tyname.html. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
- Staff Writer (2010). "FAQ: B) Tropical cyclones names". Meteo France. http://www.meteo.fr/temps/domtom/La_Reunion/webcmrs9.0/anglais/faq/FAQ_Ang_B.html. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- Staff Writer (2010-09-22). "Philippine Tropical cyclone names". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. https://www.webcitation.org/5sxZr5xi3. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Staff Writer (2008). "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-West Indian Ocean (2008)" (PDF). Regional Association I Tropical Cyclone Committee. World Meteorological Organization. http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/TCP-12Edition2008-English_FINAL.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-24.
- Staff Writer (2008). "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South Pacific and South-East Indian Ocean" (PDF). Regional Association V Tropical Cyclone Committee. World Meteorological Organization. http://www.wmo.ch/pages/prog/www/tcp/documents/TCP24-English2008.pdf. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- Staff Writer. "List of Tropical Cyclones Name". Indonesian Meteorological and Geophysical Agency. http://maritim.bmg.go.id/cyclones/tclist.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-14.
- Staff Writer. "Australian Bureau of Meteorology Tropical Cyclone Names". Bureau of Meteorology (Australia). https://www.webcitation.org/5qHzpcq1N. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- United States National Hurricane Center – RSMC Miami
- United States Central Pacific Hurricane Center – RSMC Honolulu
- Japan Meteorological Agency – RSMC Tokyo
- India Meteorological Department – RSMC New Delhi
- Météo-France – RSMC La Reunion
- Indonesia Badan Meteorologi & Geofisika – TCWC Jakarta
- Australia Bureau of Meteorology – TCWC Perth, Darwin, Brisbane
- Fiji Meteorological Service – RSMC Nadi
- Meteorological Service of New Zealand – TCWC Wellington