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Geographically, Scotland Lowlands are divided into two distinct areas: the Central Lowlands, and the Southern Uplands.
The Central Lowlands or Midland Valley is a geologically defined area of relatively low-lying land in southern Scotland. It consists of a rift valley between the Highland Boundary Fault to the north and the Southern Uplands Fault to the south. The Central Lowlands are one of the three main geographical sub-divisions of Scotland, the other two being the Highlands and Islands which lie to the north and west and the Southern Uplands, which lie south of the second fault line.
The Midland Valley has fertile low-lying agricultural land and significant deposits of valuable coal and iron have led to the Central Lowlands being much more densely populated than the rest of Scotland.
The Southern Uplands is the least populated of mainland Scotland's three major geographic areas. They lie south of the Southern Uplands Fault line that runs from Ballantrae on the Ayrshire coast northeastwards to Dunbar in East Lothian on the North Sea coast, a distance of some 220 km (140 mi). The term is used both to describe the geographical region and to collectively denote the various ranges of hills within this region.
Southern Uplands Fault
The Southern Uplands Fault  in Scotland is a fault that runs from Girvan (or more specifically from the Rhins of Galloway) to Dunbar on the East coast. It marks the southern boundary of the Scottish Midland Valley.
- McKirdy, Alan; Gordon, John & Crofts, Roger 2007. Land of mountain and flood: the geology and landforms of Scotland. Edinburgh. Birlinn.
- Gillen, Con 2003. Geology and landscapes of Scotland. Harpenden, Terra Publishing. p17
- "Southern Uplands". Tiscali.co.uk. 1995-06-07. http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0029160.html. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
- "Education Scotland - Standard Grade Bitesize Revision - Ask a Teacher - Geography - Physical - Question From PN". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/standard/other/sos/geography/physical/answerphysical_59.shtml. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
- British Geological Survey, Bedrock Geology UK North, 1:625K map 5th edn 2007
- "Overview of Southern Uplands Fault". Gazetteer for Scotland. The Institute of Geography, University of Edinburgh. http://www.scottish-places.info/features/featurefirst7744.html. Retrieved 27 December 2009.