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Hermann Minkowski

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Hermann Minkowski
Born22 June 1864(1864-06-22)
Aleksota, Russian Empire
Died12 January 1909(1909-01-12) (aged 44)
Göttingen, German Empire
InstitutionsUniversity of Göttingen and ETH Zurich
Alma materAlbertina University of Königsberg
Known forMinkowski space
Minkowski diagram

Hermann Minkowski (Russia, 22 June 1864 – Göttingen, 12 January 1909) was a German mathematician. He was one of Albert Einstein's teachers.

Minkowski is perhaps best known for his work in relativity, in which he showed in 1907 that his former student Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity (1905), could be understood geometrically as a theory of four-dimensional space-time, since known as the "Minkowski spacetime".[1][2]


  1. Minkowski, Hermann (1907/1915). Das Relativitätsprinzip. Annalen der Physik 352 (15): 927–938.
  2. H.A. Lorentz, Albert Einstein, Hermann Minkowski and Hermann Weyl 1952. The principle of relativity: a collection of original memoirs. New York: Dover.

General relativity
[math]G_{\mu \nu} + \Lambda g_{\mu \nu}= {8\pi G\over c^4} T_{\mu \nu}[/math]
Einstein field equations