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Block (periodic table)




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A long periodic table showing, from left to right: the s-, d-, f-, and p-blocks. They are named after the orbital.[1]

A block on the periodic table is a group of elements that all have their electrons in the same atomic orbital. There are four blocks, s-, d-, f, and p-.[1] The word "block" was first used to describe this by Charles Janet.[2]

Blocks in the periodic table
Group → 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
↓ Period
1 title="s-block; Primordial; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 1
H

title="s-block; Primordial; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 2
He
2 title="s-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 3
Li
title="s-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 4
Be

title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 5
B
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 6
C
title="p-block; Primordial; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 7
N
title="p-block; Primordial; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 8
O
title="p-block; Primordial; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 9
F
title="p-block; Primordial; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 10
Ne
3 title="s-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 11
Na
title="s-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 12
Mg

title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 13
Al
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 14
Si
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 15
P
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 16
S
title="p-block; Primordial; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 17
Cl
title="p-block; Primordial; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 18
Ar
4 title="s-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 19
K
title="s-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 20
Ca
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 21
Sc
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 22
Ti
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 23
V
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 24
Cr
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 25
Mn
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 26
Fe
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 27
Co
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 28
Ni
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 29
Cu
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 30
Zn
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 31
Ga
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 32
Ge
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 33
As
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 34
Se
title="p-block; Primordial; Liquid" style="text-align:center; color:green; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 35
Br
title="p-block; Primordial; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 36
Kr
5 title="s-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 37
Rb
title="s-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 38
Sr
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 39
Y
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 40
Zr
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 41
Nb
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 42
Mo
title="d-block; from decay; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 43
Tc
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 44
Ru
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 45
Rh
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 46
Pd
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 47
Ag
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 48
Cd
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 49
In
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 50
Sn
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 51
Sb
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 52
Te
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 53
I
title="p-block; Primordial; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 54
Xe
6 title="s-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 55
Cs
title="s-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 56
Ba
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 57
La
1 asterisk title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 72
Hf
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 73
Ta
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 74
W
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 75
Re
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 76
Os
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 77
Ir
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 78
Pt
title="d-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 79
Au
title="d-block; Primordial; Liquid" style="text-align:center; color:green; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 80
Hg
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 81
Tl
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 82
Pb
title="p-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 83
Bi
title="p-block; from decay; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 84
Po
title="p-block; from decay; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 85
At
title="p-block; from decay; Gas " style="text-align:center; color:red; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 86
Rn
7 title="s-block; from decay; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 87
Fr
title="s-block; from decay; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/s-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 88
Ra
title="d-block; from decay; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 89
Ac
1 asterisk title="d-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 104
Rf
title="d-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 105
Db
title="d-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 106
Sg
title="d-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 107
Bh
title="d-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 108
Hs
title="d-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 109
Mt
title="d-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 110
Ds
title="d-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 111
Rg
title="d-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/d-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 112
Cn
title="p-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 113
Nh
title="p-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 114
Fl
title="p-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 115
Mc
title="p-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 116
Lv
title="p-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 117
Ts
title="p-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/p-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 118
Og

1 asterisk title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 58
Ce
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 59
Pr
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 60
Nd
title="f-block; from decay; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 61
Pm
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 62
Sm
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 63
Eu
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 64
Gd
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 65
Tb
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 66
Dy
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 67
Ho
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 68
Er
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 69
Tm
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 70
Yb
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 71
Lu
1 asterisk title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 90
Th
title="f-block; from decay; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 91
Pa
title="f-block; Primordial; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:2px solid #8811ff;" | 92
U
title="f-block; from decay; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 93
Np
title="f-block; from decay; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/from decay;" | 94
Pu
title="f-block; synthetic; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 95
Am
title="f-block; synthetic; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 96
Cm
title="f-block; synthetic; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 97
Bk
title="f-block; synthetic; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 98
Cf
title="f-block; synthetic; Solid" style="text-align:center; color:black; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 99
Es
title="f-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 100
Fm
title="f-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 101
Md
title="f-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 102
No
title="f-block; synthetic; Unknown phase" style="text-align:center; color:Template:Element color/Unknown phase; background:Template:Element color/f-block; border:Template:Element frame/synthetic;" | 103
Lr

Blocks

p-block

The p-block is on the right side of the periodic table. Elements from groups 13-18 are in the p-block.

d-block

The d-block is in the middle of the periodic table. Elements from groups 3 to 12 are in the d-block.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Jensen, William B. (21 March 2015). "The positions of lanthanum (actinium) and lutetium (lawrencium) in the periodic table: an update". Foundations of Chemistry 17: 23–31. doi:10.1007/s10698-015-9216-1 . 
  2. Charles Janet, La classification hélicoïdale des éléments chimiques, Beauvais, 1928