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Syrian Arab Republic

الجمهورية العربية السورية
al-Jumhūriyyah al-‘Arabīyah as-Sūriyyah
Flag of Syria
Official languagesArabic1
GovernmentBa'athist Single Party State
• President
Bashar al-Assad
LegislaturePeople's Council
• from France
17 April 1946
• from the United Arab Republic
28 September 1961
• Total
185,180 km2 (71,500 sq mi) (89th)
• Water (%)
• July 2012 estimate
22,530,746[1] (53rd)
• Density
118.3/km2 (306.4/sq mi) (101st)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$105.238 billion[2] (65th)
• Per capita
US$5,043[2] (114th)
GDP (nominal)2010 estimate
• Total
US$60.210 billion[2] (66th)
• Per capita
US$2,958[2] (118th)
HDI (2011)Decrease 0.632[3]
medium · 119th
CurrencySyrian pound (SYP)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code9632
ISO 3166 codeSY
Internet, سوريا.
  1. Arabic is the official language; spoken languages and varieties are: Syrian Arabic, North Mesopotamian Arabic, Kurmanji Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian, Turkish[4]
  2. 02 from Lebanon
A map of Syria

Syria is a country in the Middle East, the west part of Asia. It borders (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq, and Turkey. Its western part faces the Mediterranean Sea. Its eastern and northern parts are mountainous.

The current president is Bashar al-Assad. He is also head of state. Syria's national capital is Damascus. A Syrian civil war began in 2011.

The population of Syria is 74% Sunni, 12% Alawi, 10% Christian, and 3% Druze.


Syria has a very long history. It was a land of Phoenicians. Later it became part of the Achaemenid Empire, Roman Empire and then the Eastern Roman Empire. In those days people spoke the Syriac language. The city Antioch was great and one of the important cities in Christendom. In the Arab Empire people began to speak the Arabic language. Today most Syrian people believe in Islam but there are still Christians too.

When World War I ended, France was given control over Lebanon and Syria. Britain was given power over Iraq, Jordan and Palestine. A border was drawn between Iraq and Syria in 1920. France controlled Syria until 1946. That year Syria became its own country.[5]

Syria was part of the United Arab Republic with Egypt in 1958-1961. Syria had some wars with Israel and some territories like the Golan Plateau were occupied by Israel.

The line in the middle of this map is the border drawn in 1920 separating Iraq and Syria.

In 2012 with the Arab Spring a very bloody civil war began against President Bashar Al Assad.


Syria is between latitudes 32° and 38° N, and longitudes 35° and 43° E. It is mostly arid plateau. The area bordering the Mediterranean is fairly green. The Euphrates, Syria's most important river, crosses the country in the east.

The climate in Syria is dry and hot. Winters are mild.

Politics and government

Syria is a republic. The old Constitution of Syria was started on 13 March 1971.[6] It made Syria as a secular socialist state. Islam was the majority religion. A new constitution has been in place since 2012.

Branches of government

The executive branch is the president, two vice presidents, the prime minister, and the Council of Ministers. The constitution says the president must be a Muslim.[6] It does not make Islam the state religion. According to the 2012 constitution, the president is elected by Syrian people in a direct election.

The People's Council is the legislative branch.

State control

Nearly all of Syria’s radio and television outlets are state owned. The Ba'ath Party controls nearly all newspapers.[7]

Human rights

Syria's human rights are among the worst in the world, according to human rights organizations such as Human Rights Watch.[8] The authorities arrest democracy and human rights activists, censor websites, detain bloggers, and have travel bans.


Syria has fourteen Governorates, or muhafazat. The governorates are divided into sixty districts. The governorates are:

  • Al Hasakah
  • Al Ladhiqiyah
  • Al Qunaytirah
  • Ar Raqqah
  • As Suwayda
  • Dara
  • Dayr az Zawr
  • Dimashq
  • Halab
  • Hamah
  • Homs
  • Idlib
  • Rif Dimashq
  • Tartus


The President of Syria is commander in chief of the Syrian armed forces. There are about 400,000 troops. Males must go in the military when they are age 18.[9]


Syria is a middle-income country. The economy is based on agriculture, oil, industry, and tourism.


Syria has three international airports (Damascus, Aleppo and Lattakia). They are hubs for Syrian Air. Foreign airlines also fly to them.[10] Most Syrian cargo is carried by Chemins de Fer Syriens, the Syrian railway company.


Population in Syria[11][12]
Year Million
1971 6.6
1990 12.7
2009 21.9
Source: OECD/World Bank/UNO

Most people live in the Euphrates valley and along the coastal plain, a fertile strip between the coastal mountains and the desert.

Education is free from ages 6 to 12. All children this age must attend school.


The most popular sports in Syria are football, basketball, swimming, and tennis. Damascus was home to the fifth and seventh Pan Arab Games. Many popular football teams are based in Damascus, Aleppo, Homs, and Latakia.

Civil war 2011-

Since 2011, there has been a civil war between pro-government supporters and rebels who oppose the government. Over 80,000 people have been killed in this war according to United Nations.[13] The United Nations Security Council has condemned the mass killing in Syria in May 2012 but in vain.

Other pages


  1. "Central Intelligence Agency. November 2, 2011 est". Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Syria". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
  3. "Human Development Report 2010". United Nations. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  4. "World Directory of Minorities: Syria Overview". Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved 2010-09-11.
  5. "Report of the Commission Entrusted by the Council with the Study of the Frontier between Syria and Iraq". 1932. Retrieved 2013-07-11.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Constitution of Syria". Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  7. "Freedom House report on Syria (2010)". Freedom House.
  8. "Syria among worst for rights abuses: HRW report". Reuters. 2011-01-24.
  9. Syria – Overview. Retrieved 2010-02-01.
  10. "Syria – travel guides at Wikivoyage". Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  11. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971–2008 IEA (pdf pages 83–85
  12. Arab Republic "UNdata". Profiles of World Countries as per UNO information. UNO. Arab Republic. Retrieved April 14 2012.