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Historic military alliances
- Medic Wars
- Peloponnesian War
- Wars of Scottish Independence
- Italian Wars
- Schmalkaldic War
- Schmalkaldic League - German Protestant States
- Anglo-Portuguese Alliance - England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and Portugal, since 1373
- Luso-Islamic War
- Thirty Years' War
- War of the Grand Alliance (Nine Years War)
- War of the Spanish Succession
- Napoleonic Wars
- The Quadruple Alliance of 1814/15
- First through Seventh Coalitions
- The Quadruple Alliance of 1834
- Anglo-Japanese Alliance - United Kingdom and Japan
- World War I
- World War II
- Cold War
- Western European Union (WEU) - currently in process of merging into CFSP and ESDP (see below)
- North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) -- United States, Canada, most of Western Europe (still an active alliance)
- Warsaw Pact - Soviet Union, East Germany, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Romania
- Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) - United States, United Kingdom, France, Australia, Burma, New Zealand, Pakistan, Thailand, Philippines
- Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) - United States, United Kingdom, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan
- ANZUS - United States, Australia, New Zealand (still an active alliance)
- Five Powers Pact - Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, United Kingdom (still an active alliance)
Current military alliances and economic assistance
- North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) - United States, United Kingdom, Canada, most of Western Europe and Central Europe, parts of Eastern Europe, and Turkey.
- Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) - Russia, Belarus, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
- Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) of the European Union.
- Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) - United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Singapore.
- ANZUS Treaty (ANZUS) - United States, Australia, New Zealand.
- ECOMOG of Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group.
- Council for Peace and Security in Central Africa (COPAX) of Economic Community of Central African States.
- Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (Rio Pact) - Most of the countries of the Americas.
- North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) - United States and Canada. NORAD and other defense agreements (such as the Permanent Joint Board on Defense) form the most extensive defense alliance in the world.
- Regional Security System (RSS) - several Eastern Caribbean countries.
- Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), political, economic and military organisation - China, Russia, India, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.
- Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) - economic and military assistance.