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# China

People's Republic of China

• 中华人民共和国
• Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Anthem:
Area controlled by the People's Republic of China shown in dark green; claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.
CapitalBeijing[a]
39°55′N 116°23′E﻿ / ﻿39.917°N 116.383°E
Official languages
Vernacular Chinese
Simplified Chinese[2]
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Chinese
GovernmentSocialist, Single-party state[4]
Xi Jinping[d]
Li Keqiang
Zhang Dejiang
Yu Zhengsheng
• First-ranked Secretary of the Secretariat
Liu Yunshan
Wang Qishan
• First Vice Premier
Zhang Gaoli
LegislatureNational People's Congress
Formation
• First Unification of China under the Qin Dynasty
221 BCE
1 January 1912
1 October 1949
Area
• Total
9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi)[e] (3rd/4th)
• Water (%)
0.28%[f]
Population
• 2016 estimate
1,403,500,365[9] (1st)
• 2010 census
1,339,724,852[10] (1st)
• Density
[convert: %s]%s (83rd)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$27.449 trillion[12] (1st) • Per capita$19,559[12] (79th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$15.543 trillion (IMF)[12]$15.224 trillion (China NBS)[13][14] (2nd)
• Per capita

## Science and technology

Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from the Wujing Zongyao of 1044 CE

China was once a world leader in science and technology up until the Ming dynasty. There are many Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions. For example, papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder are known as the Four Great Inventions. They became widespread across East Asia, the Middle East and later to Europe. Chinese mathematicians were the first to use negative numbers. By the 17th century, Europe and the Western world became better than China in science and technology.

## Demographics

The national census of 2010 recorded the population of the People's Republic of China to be about 1,370,536,875. About 16.60% of the population were 14 years old or younger, 70.14% were between 15 and 59 years old, and 13.26% were over 60 years old. The population growth rate for 2013 is estimated to be 0.46%.

## Culture

China is the origin of Eastern martial arts, called Kung Fu or its first name Wushu. China is also the home of the well-respected Spa Monastery and Wudang Mountains. Martial art started more for the purpose of survival, defense, and warfare than art. Over time some art forms have branched off, while others have retained their distinct Chinese flavor.

China has had renowned artists including Wong Fei Hung (Huang Fei Hung or Hwang Fei Hung) and many others. Art has also co-existed with a variety of paints including the more standard 18 colors. Legendary and controversial moves like Big Mak are also praised and talked about within the culture.

China has many traditional festivals, such as Spring Festival, Dragon Boat Festival, Mid-autumn Festival and so on. The most important is Chinese New Year. People in China will have holidays to celebrate these festivals.

### Festivals

Spring Festival is the Chinese New Year.

Dragon Boat Festival is celebrated to commemorate the death of Qu Yuan, a patriotic poet of the State of Chu during the Warring States period. He persuaded his emperor not to accept Qin's diplomats' offers several times but his emperor did not listen to him. He was very sad and ended up jumping into the river to end his life. The people loved him so much that they did not want the fish to eat his corpse. They made and threw rice dumplings into the river. They hope the fish eat these dumplings instead of the poet's corpse. They also rowed dragon boats in the river to get rid of the fish. Such practices, eating rice dumplings and holding dragon boat races, become what Chinese do in this festival nowadays.

Held on the fifteenth day of the eighth lunar month, Mid-Autumn Festival is a festival for families. Now when the festival sets in, people would sit together to eat moon cakes, appreciate the bright full moon cakes, appreciate the bright full moon, celebrate the bumper harvest and enjoy the family love and happiness. To the Chinese people, the full moon symbolizes family reunion, as does the "moon cakes." Hence the Mid-Autumn Festival is also called the Family Reunion Festival.

## Notes

1. Eden, Richard. Decades of the New World (1555) 'The great China whose kyng is thought the greatest prince in the world.'

## Footnotes

1. Or (previously) "Peking".
2. Portuguese (Macau only), English (Hong Kong only).
3. Ethnic minorities that are recognized officially.
4. Xi Jinping holds four concurrent positions: General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (de facto paramount leader), President of the People's Republic of China (de jure head of state), and Chairman of the Central Military Commission (Commander-in-chief) for both state and party.[5]
5. The area given is the official United Nations figure for the mainland and excludes Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.[6] It also excludes the Trans-Karakoram Tract (5,800 km2 (2,200 sq mi)), Aksai Chin (37,244 km2 (14,380 sq mi)) and other territories in dispute with India. The total area of China is listed as 9,572,900 km2 (3,696,100 sq mi) by the Encyclopædia Britannica.[7]
6. This figure was calculated using data from the CIA World Factbook.[8]
7. The Hong Kong Dollar is used in Hong Kong and the Macanese pataca is used in Macau.
8. Except Hong Kong and Macau.

## References

1. Chan, Kam Wing (2007). "Misconceptions and Complexities in the Study of China's Cities: Definitions, Statistics, and Implications" (PDF). Eurasian Geography and Economics 48 (4): 383–412. . Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2011.  p. 395
2. "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)". Chinese Government. 31 October 2000. Retrieved 21 June 2013. "For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua (a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect) and the standardized Chinese characters."
3. "Constitution of the People's Republic of China". The National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China. 15 November 2007. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
4. "New man at helm: Xi Jinping elected to lead China". RT.com. 15 November 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
5. "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density". UN Statistics. 2007. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
6. "China". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
7. "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
8. "United Nations world population prospects"(PDF) 2015 revision
9. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
10. "Population density (people per km2 of land area)". IMF. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
11. "Xinhua Headlines: Chinese economy powering ahead, fulfilling 2018 targets". Xinhuanet News. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
12. "National Economic Performance Maintained within an Appropriate Range in 2018 with Main Development Goals Achieved". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Retrieved 21 January 2019.
13. "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
15. Haggett, Peter. [2001] (2001). Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 23. Edition 2, illustrated. Marshall Cavendish publishing.

Template-specific style sheet:

ISBN 0-7614-7289-4, 9780761472896. p 37. p 2836.
16. "China", Online Etymology Dictionary
17. Wood, Francis, Did Marco Polo go to China (1995), p. 61.
18. Gernet, Jacques. [1996] (1996). A history of Chinese civilization Edition 2, illustrated. Cambridge University Press.

Template-specific style sheet:

ISBN 0-521-49781-7, 9780521497817. p 40.
19. Mitter, Rana, Modern China: A Very Short Introduction P.22.