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Up to 1900
- 1189 - Richard I of England comes to the throne. He is known as "Richard the Lionheart" and spends most of his reign abroad fighting in the Crusades.
- 1348 - Pope Clement VI issues a papal bull protecting the Jews accused of having caused the Black Death.
- 1411 - Ming Dynasty China's Admiral Zheng He returns to Nanjing after the third treasure voyage and presents the Sinhalese King, captured during the Ming-Kotte War, to the Yongle Emperor.
- 1415 - Bohemian Christian reformer Jan Hus is burned and the stake and becomes a martyr.
- 1483 - King Richard III of England is crowned.
- 1484 - Portuguese sea captain Diogo Cao finds the mouth of the Congo River.
- 1495 - First Italian War: Battle of Fornovo - Charles VIII, Holy Roman Emperor defeats the Holy League.
- 1535 - Thomas More is executed for treason on the orders of King Henry VIII of England.
- 1553 - King Edward VI of England dies at the age of 16. A succession crisis initially puts Lady Jane Grey on the throne for nine days, before Edward's sister becomes Queen Mary I of England.
- 1557 - King Philip II of Spain, consort of Mary I of England, sets out from Dover to war with France. It results in England losing Calais and Mary and Philip never seeing each other again.
- 1560 - The Treaty of Edinburgh is signed between Scotland and England.
- 1573 - The city of Cordoba, Argentina, is founded by Jeronimo Luis de Cabrera.
- 1609 - Bohemia is granted freedom of religion.
- 1630 - Thirty Years' War: 4,000 Swedish troops under King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden land in Pomerania on what is now Germany's Baltic Sea coast.
- 1777 - American Revolutionary War: Siege of Fort Ticonderoga - After a bombardment by British artillery under General John Burgoyne, American forces retreat from Fort Ticonderoga, New York.
- 1779 - Battle of Grenada: The French defeat British naval forces during the American Revolutionary War.
- 1785 – The dollar is chosen as the US monetary unit.
- 1801 - First Battle of Algeciras: Outnumbered French Navy ships defeat the Royal Navy in the fortified Spanish port of Algeciras.
- 1854 – The Republican Party meets for the first time, in Jackson, Mississippi.
- 1885 – Louis Pasteur tests the vaccine for rabies.
- 1887 - David Kalakaua, King of Hawai'i, is forced at gunpoint by the Americans to sign the Bayonet Constitution, giving the Americans more power in Hawai'i, while stripping Hawaiian citizens of their rights.
- 1892 - Dadabhai Naoroji is elected as the first Indian member of the UK Parliament.
- 1893 - The small town of Pomeroy, Iowa, is nearly destroyed by a tornado that kills 71 people and injuring 200.
1901 – 2000
- 1905 – Alfred Deakin becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the second time.
- 1917 - World War I: Arabian troops under T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) and Auda ibn Tayi capture Aqaba from the Ottoman Empire.
- 1937 - Spanish Civil War: The Battle of Brunete begins with Republican troops going on the offensive against the Nationalists to relieve pressure on Madrid.
- 1939 - Holocaust: The last-remaining Jewish-owned businesses in Germany are shut down.
- 1942 – Anne Frank and her family go into hiding in the secret annex in Amsterdam.
- 1944 - A circus fire in Hartford, Connecticut kills around 168 people.
- 1947 – The AK-47 goes into production in the Soviet Union.
- 1950 - The Oder-Neisse Line is determined as the border between Poland and the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
- 1957 – In Tennis, Althea Gibson becomes the first African American to win a Wimbledon title.
- 1957 – Paul McCartney and John Lennon meet for the first time.
- 1962 - The Late Late Show is first broadcast on US television.
- 1964 – Malawi becomes independent.
- 1966 – Malawi becomes a Republic, with Hastings Banda as President under a one-party system.
- 1967 – The Biafran War begins, as Biafra tries to become independent from Nigeria.
- 1967 - A train crash near Magdeburg in what was then East Germany kills 94 people.
- 1975 – The Comoros declare independence.
- 1988 – In the North Sea, a major fire occurs on the Piper Alpha oil rig off the east coast of Scotland, killing 167 people.
- 1989 - Tel Aviv-Jerusalem bus 405 suicide attack: 14 bus passengers are killed when an Arab assaulted the bus driver as the bus was driving was driven off the edge of a cliff.
- 1995 - Bosnian-Serb forces under Ratko Mladic start their assault on the town of Srebrenica.
- 2000 - Germany is given the right to host the 2006 FIFA World Cup.
- 2003 – Tennis: Roger Federer wins his first Grand Slam singles title at Wimbledon, defeating Mark Philippoussis of Australia in three sets. It is also the first of Federer's five consecutive Wimbledon titles.
- 2005 – The 2012 Summer Olympics are given to London at an IOC sitting in Singapore.
- 2005 - The 2005 G8 summit, lasting until July 9, held in Gleneagles, Scotland, begins.
- 2008 – Tennis: Rafael Nadal wins the men's singles title at Wimbledon, ending Roger Federer's run of five consecutive titles there.
- 2009 – Jadranka Kosor becomes Prime Minister of Croatia.
- 2011 – Pyeongchang, South Korea is announced as the host city for the 2018 Winter Olympics.
- 2013 - A 73-car oil train derails in Lac Megantic, Quebec, Canada, and explodes into flames, killing at least 47 people and destroying much of the town center.
Up to 1900
- 1623 - Jacopo Melani, Italian violinist and composer (d. 1676)
- 1678 - Nicola Francesco Haym, Italian cellist and composer (d. 1729)
- 1686 - Antoine de Jussieu, French biologist (d. 1758)
- 1747 – John Paul Jones, British-American naval commander (d. 1792)
- 1766 – Alexander Wilson, Scottish-born poet, ornithologist, naturalist, and painter (d. 1813)
- 1781 – Thomas Stamford Raffles, founder of Singapore (d. 1826)
- 1782 - Maria Luisa of Spain (d. 1824)
- 1789 - Maria Isabella of Spain (d. 1846)
- 1796 – Tsar Nicholas I of Russia (d. 1855)
- 1808 - Johann Gustav Droysen, German historian (d. 1884)
- 1818 – Adolf Anderssen, chess player (d. 1879)
- 1824 - John Lourie Beveridge, American politician, 16th Governor of Illinois (d. 1910)
- 1832 – Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico (d. 1867)
- 1838 – Vatroslav Jagic, Croatian scholar (d. 1923)
- 1859 – Verner von Heidenstam, Swedish writer (d. 1940)
- 1868 – Princess Victoria of the United Kingdom (d. 1935)
- 1875 - Charles Perrin, French rower (d. 1954)
- 1876 - Louis J. Brann, American politician, Governor of Maine (d. 1948)
- 1878 – Eino Leino, Finnish poet (d. 1926)
- 1884 – Harold Vanderbilt, American businessman (d. 1970)
- 1886 - Marc Bloch, French historian (d. 1944)
- 1887 - Marc Chagall, Belarus-born French artist (d. 1985)
- 1887 - Annette Kellerman, Australian swimmer (d. 1975)
- 1887 – Walter Flex, writer (d. 1917)
- 1897 - Richard Krautheimer, German-American historian and scholar (d. 1994)
- 1898 – Hanns Eisler, German composer (d. 1962)
- 1900 – Frederica Sagor Maas, American playwright, screenwriter and writer (d. 2012)
1901 – 1950
- 1903 – Hugo Theorell, Swedish biochemist (d. 1982)
- 1904 - Erik Wickberg, Swedish General of the Salvation Army (d. 1996)
- 1907 – Frida Kahlo, Mexican painter (d. 1954)
- 1907 - George Stanley, Canadian soldier, historian and author (d. 2002)
- 1912 - Heinrich Harrer, Austrian mountaineer and geographer (d. 2006)
- 1914 - Vince McMahon, Sr., American wrestling promoter (d. 1981)
- 1916 - Harold Norse, American poet (d. 2009)
- 1917 - Arthur Lydiard, New Zealand runner and coach (d. 2004)
- 1918 – Sebastian Cabot, English actor (d. 1977)
- 1919 – Ernst Haefliger, Swiss tenor (d. 2007)
- 1921 – Nancy Reagan, actress and First Lady of the United States
- 1921 - Allan McEachen, Canadian economist and politician
- 1923 – Wojciech Jaruzelski, President of Poland (d. 2014)
- 1924 - Louie Bellson, American jazz musician
- 1925 – Merv Griffin, American game show developer and television show host (d. 2007)
- 1925 – Bill Haley, American singer (Bill Haley and the Comets) (d. 1981)
- 1927 – Janet Leigh, American actress (d. 2004)
- 1927 – Hein Donner, Dutch chess player
- 1927 – Dolores Claman, musician and composer
- 1927 – Pat Paulsen, American comedian and Presidential candidate (d. 1997)
- 1930 - Ian Burgess, British racing driver (d. 2012)
- 1930 – Herbert Erhardt, German footballer (d. 2010)
- 1931 – Della Reese, American singer and actress
- 1931 - Antonella Lualdi, Italian actress
- 1932 - Herman Hertzberger, Dutch architect and educator
- 1935 – Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama
- 1936 – Dave Allen, Irish comedian (d. 2005)
- 1937 – Ned Beatty, American actor
- 1937 – Vladimir Ashkenazy, Russian pianist and conductor
- 1939 – Jet Harris, English musician (The Shadows) (d. 2011)
- 1939 - Mary Peters, British pentathlete
- 1940 – Nursultan Nazarbayev, President of Kazakhstan
- 1946 – Peter Singer, Australian philosopher
- 1946 – Sylvester Stallone, American actor
- 1946 – George W. Bush, 43rd President of the United States
- 1946 - Toquinho, Brazilian musician
- 1949 - Phyllis Hyman, American singer and songwriter (d. 1995)
1951 – 1975
- 1951 – Geoffrey Rush, Australian actor
- 1952 - Hilary Mantel, English writer
- 1953 – Nanci Griffith, American singer and songwriter
- 1958 – Jennifer Saunders, English actress and comedienne
- 1959 – Richard Dacoury, French basketball player
- 1961 - Benita Fitzgerald-Brown, American Olympic hurdler
- 1962 - Peter Hedges, American author, director and screenwriter
- 1967 – Heather Nova, British-Bermudan guitarist and singer
- 1969 - Fernando Redondo, Argentine footballer
- 1970 – Roger Cicero, German singer and musician
- 1970 – Inspectah Deck, American rapper
- 1972 - Isabelle Boulay, Canadian singer
- 1974 – Ze Roberto, Brazilian footballer
- 1975 – 50 Cent, American rapper
- 1977 – Max Mirnyi, Belarussian tennis player
- 1978 - Tamera Mowry, American actress
- 1978 - Tia Mowry, American actress
- 1979 - Kevin Hart, American actor and comedian
- 1980 – Pau Gasol, Spanish basketball player
- 1982 – Brandon Jacobs, American football player
- 1984 - Zhang Hao, Chinese figure skater
- 1984 - Lauren Harris, English singer and actress
- 1984 - Natasha Zlobina, Uzbek-French actress and model
- 1985 - Ranveer Singh, Indian actor
- 1987 – Kate Nash, English singer and songwriter
- 1987 - Sophie Auster, American actress and singer
- 1988 - Brittany Underwood, American actress and singer
- 1990 - Ajoo, South Korean singer and dancer
- 1991 - Victoire Thivisol, French actress
- 1994 – Camilla Rosso, British actress
- 1994 - Rebecca Rosso, British actress
- 1996 - Robert Naylor, Canadian actor
Up to 1900
- 918 - William I, Duke of Aquitaine (b. 875)
- 1189 – King Henry II of England (b. 1133)
- 1218 - Odo III, Duke of Burgundy (b. 1166)
- 1249 - King Alexander II of Scotland (b. 1198)
- 1415 – Jan Hus, Bohemian religious reformer and Christian martyr (b. 1369)
- 1476 - Regiomontanus, German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer (b. 1436)
- 1480 - Antonio Squarcialupi, Italian organist and composer (b. 1416)
- 1533 - Ludovico Ariosto, Italian poet (b. 1474)
- 1535 – Thomas More, English philosopher and Christian martyr (b. 1478)
- 1553 – King Edward VI of England (b. 1537)
- 1762 – Tsar Peter III of Russia (b. 1728)
- 1809 – Antoine Charles Louis Lasalle, French cavalry general (b. 1775)
- 1835 - John Marshall, 4th United States Secretary of State (b. 1755)
- 1854 – Georg Ohm, German physicist (b. 1789)
- 1868 - Harada Sanosuke, Japanese captain (b. 1840)
- 1893 – Guy de Maupassant, French writer (b. 1850)
1901 – 2000
- 1901 - Chlodwig, Prince of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfuerst (b. 1819)
- 1902 - Maria Goretti, Italian martyr and saint (b. 1890)
- 1904 - Abai Qunanbaiuli, Kazakhstani poet and philosopher (b. 1845)
- 1916 - Odilon Redon, French painter (b. 1840)
- 1930 - Cormic Cosgrove, American soccer player (b. 1869)
- 1932 – Kenneth Grahame, British writer (b. 1859)
- 1937 - Carlos Eugenio Restrepo, 31st President of Colombia (b. 1867)
- 1952 - Louis-Alexandre Taschereau, French-Canadian lawyer and politician, 14th Premier of Quebec (b. 1867)
- 1954 - Julio Acosta Garcia, President of Costa Rica (b. 1872)
- 1959 – George Grosz, German painter (b. 1893)
- 1960 – Aneurin Bevan, Welsh politician (b. 1897)
- 1962 – William Faulkner, American writer (b. 1897)
- 1962 - Paul Boffa, 5th Prime Minister of Malta (b. 1890)
- 1962 - Archduke Joseph August of Austria (b. 1872)
- 1963 - George, Duke of Mecklenburg (b. 1899)
- 1971 – Louis Armstrong, American musician (b. 1901)
- 1973 – Otto Klemperer, German conductor (b. 1895)
- 1974 - Francis Blanche, French actor (b. 1921)
- 1976 - Zhu De, Chinese general and politician (b. 1886)
- 1986 – Jagjivan Ram, Indian politician (b. 1908)
- 1989 – Janos Kadar, Hungarian politician (b. 1912)
- 1997 - Chetan Anand, Indian director, producer and screenwriter (b. 1921)
- 1998 - Roy Rogers, American actor and singer (b. 1911)
- 1999 - Joaquin Rodrigo, Spanish pianist and composer (b. 1901)
- 2000 – Wladyslaw Szpilman, Polish pianist, composer and writer (b. 1911)
- 2002 - John Frankenheimer, American movie director (b. 1930)
- 2004 – Thomas Klestil, President of Austria (b. 1932)
- 2004 - Syreeta Wright, American singer-songwriter (b. 1946)
- 2005 – Claude Simon, French writer (b. 1913)
- 2005 – Evan Hunter, American writer (b. 1926)
- 2009 – Robert McNamara, American politician (b. 1916)
- 2009 – Vasily Aksyonov, Russian writer (b. 1932)
- 2009 - Bleddyn Williams, Welsh rugby player (b. 1923)
- 2013 - Ruby Keeling, American basketball player and coach (b. 1947)
- 2014 - Benedito de Assis da Silva, Brazilian footballer (b. 1952)
- 2014 - Alan J. Dixon, former United States Senator from Illinois (b. 1927)
- Independence Day in Malawi (1966), and the Comoros (1975)
- Jan Hus Day (Czech Republic)
- Statehood Day (Lithuania)
- First Day of the San Fermin Bull run festival in Pamplona, northern Spain